我们建立了一个基于Majorana表面编码和Majorana色码的基于多数的容错量子计算的统一框架。所有的逻辑Clifford gates都是在零时间开销的情况下实现的。这是通过为泡利的产品测量引入的一个协议来完成的,它只需要本地的4-Majorana奇偶校验测量。在容错设置中使用了一个类似的协议,在那里,四子和六子被Majorana的表面代码块取代,而奇偶性测量被晶格手术所取代,仍然只需要局部的few-Majorana奇偶校验。为此,我们讨论了Majorana费米子表面编码的捻度缺陷,并将其应用于费米子编码的基于扭体的格子手术技术。此外,我们提出了一种我们称为Majorana的编码族,它是通过将Majorana表面码与小Majorana费米子码连接起来得到的。Majorana表面和颜色代码可以用来减少空间的开销和稳定的重量,他们的玻色子同行。

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure1 Tetrons and hexons as the two smallest Majorana fermion codes, and their correspondence to 4 or 6 Majoranas in a fixed-parity sector, e.g., via the quantum-wire construction in Ref.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 2 The three uniform three-colorable tilings of the 2D plane (a), and three examples of nonuniform tilings

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 3 Logical tetrons of the 4.8.8 (a), 6.6.6 (b), and 4.6.12 (c) Majorana surface code with code distances d = 1 , 3, and 5. The 6.6.6 Majorana surface code with d = 5 shows an example of strings of red and blue edges through the bulk of the code. Products of Majoranas along the red and blue strings are equivalent to logical X and Z operators, respectively.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 4 Logical hexons of the 4.8.8 (a), 6.6.6 (b), and 4.6.12 (c) Majorana surface code with code distances d = 1 , 3, and 5

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 5 (a) Applying a T gate to a qubit | ψ ⟩ is equivalent to a CNOT between the qubit and a magic state | m ⟩ = 1 √ 2 ( | 0 ⟩ + e i π / 4 | 1 ⟩ ) , a measurement of the magic state with outcome m ∈ { 0 , 1 } , and a corrective operation S m on the qubit. (b) Example of a circuit of Clifford gates and four Z measurements that is compressed into four Pauli product measurements.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 6 Array of tetrons and hexons, where hexons are used to encode data qubits, and tetrons are used as ancillas for Pauli product measurements.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 7 Protocol for the measurement of the Pauli product operator Z 1 ⊗ X 3 ⊗ Z 8 ⊗ Y 9 .

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 8 Lattice surgery between two 4.8.8 Majorana surface code tetrons with code distance d = 5 measuring Z ⊗ Z . The box in the bottom left corner shows the corresponding measurement with d = 1 , where Z ⊗ Z is the red 4-Majorana operator.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客Figure 9 Lattice surgery protocols for the measurements of the operators X ⊗ X (a), Z ⊗ X (b), and Y ⊗ X (c) between a 4.8.8 Majorana surface code hexon and tetron. The insets show the equivalent operation with d = 1 .


 

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 10 Lattice surgery protocol for the measurement of Y ⊗ X between a 4.8.8 Majorana surface code hexon and tetron. The hexon is modified to feature hexons instead of tetrons at the bottom and top red boundaries. As a consequence, the weight of the twist defect (orange) reduces to 8 Majoranas.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 11 Lattice surgery protocol for the measurement of Y ⊗ X between 6.6.6 (a) and 4.6.12 (b) Majorana surface code hexons and tetrons. The maximum weight of the operators during lattice surgery is 8 Majoranas for 6.6.6 codes and 6 Majoranas for 4.6.12 codes.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 12 State injection protocols to convert a state encoded in a physical tetron into a logical 4.8.8 (a), 6.6.6 (b), or 4.6.12 (c) tetron for the example of d = 5 .

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 13 A bosonic surface code (a) concatenated with a [[4,2,2]] code yields a bosonic 4.8.8 code (b). This can also be drawn as a Majorana fermion code (c) by replacing each qubit with a tetron (yellow lines). This Majorana color code can also be obtained by replacing each tetron of the 4.8.8 Majorana surface code with a [ [ 16 , 2 , 4 ] ] m code. (e) Stabilizers and logical operators of the [ [ 16 , 3 , 4 ] ] m code presented in Ref. [24]. (f) Order-3 Majorana color code obtained by concatenating a 4.8.8 Majorana surface code with the [ [ 16 , 3 , 4 ] ] m code. Each yellow 16-Majorana box corresponds to a [ [ 16 , 3 , 4 ] ] m code. Since the stabilizers overlap, they are shown in two separate figures.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 14 Scheme to obtain a 4.8.8 ( [ [ 6 , 2 , 2 ] ] m ) Majorana color code by concatenating the 4.8.8 Majorana surface code with a [ [ 6 , 2 , 2 ] ] m code, i.e., by stacking two surface codes and replacing each pair of tetrons with a hexon.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 15 Scheme for quantum computation in an array of tetrons and hexons, where the hexons are used to encode qubits, and tetrons are used as ancillas for Pauli product measurements. One part of the array is used to encode the data qubits for quantum computation, whereas the rest of the quantum computer is used to distill magic states.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 16 6.6.6 and 4.6.12 surface code tetrons in a square lattice of hexons and dodecons, respectively.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 17 One choice of mapping of 4.8.8, 6.6.6, and 4.6.12 Majorana surface codes onto bosonic surface codes. For bosonic surface codes, the dark plaquettes are products of X operators, and the light plaquettes are products of Z operators.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 18 A T gate on a qubit | ψ ⟩ is equivalent to a Z ⊗ Z measurement between | ψ ⟩ and a magic state | m ⟩ with outcome m 1 , which results in a corrective S m 1 operation on | ψ ⟩ . In order to disentangle | m ⟩ from the qubit, it is measured in the X basis, prompting a Z m 2 Pauli correction on | ψ ⟩ .

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 19 A multitarget CNOT gate between a control qubit | c ⟩ and multiple target qubits | t i ⟩ is equivalent to a Z ⊗ Z measurement between | c ⟩ and an ancilla initialized in the | + ⟩ state, followed by a X ⊗ n + 1 measurement between the ancilla and the n target qubits. Finally, the ancilla is measured in the Z basis. The final Pauli corrections depend on the measurement results.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 20 Pauli product measurement protocol from Fig. 7 realized with d = 3 4.8.8 Majorana surface codes. Only steps 1, 2, and 3 are shown.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 21 Stabilizer configuration for Z ⊗ Z measurements between two 6.6.6 Majorana surface code tetrons, and for X ⊗ X and Z ⊗ X measurements between a 6.6.6 hexon and a 6.6.6 tetron.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客Figure 22 Stabilizer configuration for Z ⊗ Z measurements between two 4.6.12 Majorana surface code tetrons, and for X ⊗ X and Z ⊗ X measurements between a 4.6.12 hexon and a 4.6.12 tetron.


 

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 23 Stabilizer configuration for Y ⊗ Z measurements between a 4.6.12 Majorana hexon and tetron

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 24 Stabilizer configuration for Y ⊗ Z measurements between a 6.6.6 Majorana hexon and tetron. Some of the physical hexons located at the boundary have been replaced by octons. As a consequence, the maximum stabilizer weight reduces to 6 Majoranas.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 25 Twist-based lattice surgery between a logical hexon and a logical tetron encoded in a d = 3 bosonic subsystem surface code in order to measure Y ⊗ Z . The Majorana fermion code obtained by replacing each qubit of a bosonic subsystem surface code tetron with 4 Majoranas in a fixed-parity sector resembles a 4.6.12 Majorana surface code.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 26 Tunnel-coupling configurations for the Pauli product measurements protocol from Fig. 7 realized with the wire-based tetrons and hexons proposed in Ref.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 27 Nanowire-based implementations of 4.8.8 (a), 6.6.6 (b), and 4.6.12 (c), with examples of tunnel-coupling configurations for red and blue stabilizer measurements. Coherent links (d) may be necessary for the measurement of other operators.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 28 4.8.8 ( [ [ 6 , 2 , 2 ] ] m ) Majorana color code in a 2D array of hexons.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 29 Procedure to obtain a 4.8.8 ( [ [ 8 , 3 , 2 ] ] m ) Majorana color code. In order to prevent stabilizer weights from increasing beyond 10 Majoranas, the tetrons of a 4.8.8 Majorana surface code are periodically labeled A, B, C, and D. Each tetron is replaced by a single octon, but the definition of the octon's logical operators depends on the label of the corresponding tetron. In the figure, the octon's Z ( X ) operators correspond to products of blue (red) Majoranas. The resulting stabilizers have a maximum weight of 10 Majoranas, as shown for the three overlapping blue Z type stabilizers.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 30 Stabilizers O 1 − O 4 and logical operators of the [ [ 20 , 4 , 4 ] ] m code presented in Ref.

量子计算与马约娜·费米恩编码-量子客
Figure 31 Lattice surgery protocol for the measurement of the operator Z 1 ⊗ Z between a bosonic 4.8.8 color code tetron and a 4.8.8 Majorana surface code tetron. Z 1 is the Z operator of the first qubit encoded in the bosonic 4.8.8 color code tetron.